Japanese researchers find new way to diagnose ovarian cancer

 - Sakshi Post

Tokyo, July 10 (IANS) A team of Japanese researchers discovered new biomarkers that can better help detect ovarian cancer, as the disease is difficult to detect in its early stages where it can most easily be treated.

The team from Nagoya University in Japan demonstrated a new detection method for identification of ovarian cancer.

They identified three previously unknown membrane proteins in ovarian cancer and captured them by using a unique technology consisting of nanowires with a polyketone coating.

One approach to detecting cancer is to look for extracellular vesicles (EVs), especially small proteins released from the tumour called exosomes.

As these proteins are found outside the cancer cell, they can be isolated from body fluids, such as blood, urine, and saliva. However, the use of these biomarkers is hindered by the lack of reliable ones for the detection of ovarian cancer.

The team extracted both small and medium/large EVs from high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) -- the most common type of ovarian cancer, and analysed them using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyse the proteins.

"The validation steps for the identified proteins were tough because we had to try a lot of antibodies before we found a good target," said Akira Yokoi, from the Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

"As a result, it became clear that the small and medium/large EVs are loaded with clearly different molecules. Further investigation revealed that small EVs are more suitable biomarkers than the medium and large type. We identified the membrane proteins FRalpha, Claudin-3, and TACSTD2 in the small EVs associated with HGSC," he added.

After identifying the proteins, the team investigated whether they could capture EVs in a way that would allow for the identification of the presence of cancer.

Then they created a polyketone chain-coated nanowires (pNWs), a technology ideal for separating exosomes from blood samples.

"pNW creation was tough,"Yokoi said. "We must have tried 3-4 different coatings on the nanowires. Although polyketones are a completely new material to use to coat this type of nanowire, in the end, they were such a good fit."

"Our findings showed that each of the three identified proteins is useful as a biomarker for HGSCs," said Yokoi.

"The results of this research suggest that these diagnostic biomarkers can be used as predictive markers for specific therapies. Our results allow doctors to optimise their therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer, therefore, they may be useful for realising personalised medicine."

Disclaimer: This story has not been edited by the Sakshi Post team and is auto-generated from syndicated feed.

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